Diary of a medical scientist

Sep 29

allthingshyper:

gehayi:

hiddlesbatchlove:

 

 

 

mannysiege:

Progress







sources:
Engagdget
DailyTech
CBS

They turned RNA into an anti-virus program. That is amazing.

Let me restate this in case it didn’t sink in the first time
Researchers physically DELETED ALL TRACES of the HIV virus from a human cell.
ALL OF IT.
IF YOU ARE NOT EXCITED ABOUT THAT I DON’T THINK YOU KNOW WHAT HIV IS

allthingshyper:

gehayi:

hiddlesbatchlove:

 

 

 

mannysiege:

Progress

sources:

Engagdget

DailyTech

CBS

They turned RNA into an anti-virus program. That is amazing.

Let me restate this in case it didn’t sink in the first time

Researchers physically DELETED ALL TRACES of the HIV virus from a human cell.

ALL OF IT.

IF YOU ARE NOT EXCITED ABOUT THAT I DON’T THINK YOU KNOW WHAT HIV IS

(Source: mannysiege, via lonleyontop)

mynotes4usmle:

ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)
Also, REMEMBER!!!!
* Sulfonamides compete for albumin with:
Bilirrubin: given in 2°,3°T, high risk or indirect hyperBb and kernicterus in premies
Warfarin: increases toxicity: bleeding
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:
Natural Penicillins (G, V, F, K)
Aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin)
Antipseudomonal Penicillins (Ticarcillin, Piperacillin)
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:
Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin
3°G, 4°G Cephalosporins
Carbapenems 
Monobactams
Beta-lactamase inhibitors
* Penicillins enhanced with:
Clavulanic acid & Sulbactam (both are suicide inhibitors, they inhibit beta-lactamase)
Aminoglycosides (against enterococcus and psedomonas)
* Aminoglycosides enhanced with Aztreonam
* Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT Oxacillin & Nafcillin (bile)
* Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT Cefoperazone & Cefrtriaxone (bile)
* Both inhibited by Probenecid during tubular secretion.
* 2°G Cephalosporines: none cross BBB except Cefuroxime
* 3°G Cephalosporines: all cross BBB except Cefoperazone bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn’t cross BBB.
* Cephalosporines are ”LAME" bc they  do not cover this organisms 
L  isteria monocytogenes
A  typicals (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia)
M RSA (except Ceftaroline, 5°G)
E  nterococci

* Disulfiram-like effect: Cefotetan & Cefoperazone (mnemonic)
* Cefoperanzone: all the exceptions!!!
All 3°G cephalosporins cross the BBB except Cefoperazone.
All cephalosporins are renal cleared, except Cefoperazone.
Disulfiram-like effect
* Against Pseudomonas:
3°G Cef taz idime (taz taz taz taz)
4°G Cefepime, Cefpirome (not available in the USA)
Antipseudomonal penicillins
Aminoglycosides (synergy with beta-lactams)
Aztreonam (pseudomonal sepsis)
* Covers MRSA: Ceftaroline (rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5°G Ceph), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline.
* Covers VRSA: Linezolid, Dalfopristin/Quinupristin
* Aminoglycosides: decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.
* DEMECLOCYCLINE: tetracycline that’s not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)
* Phototoxicity: Q ue S T  ion?
Q uinolones
Sulfonamides
T etracyclines

* p450 inhibitors: Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides
* Macrolides SE: Motilin stimulation, QT prolongation, reversible deafness, eosinophilia, cholestatic hepatitis
* Bactericidal: beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.
* Baceriostatic: tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.
* Pseudomembranous colitis: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.
* QT prolongation: macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones

mynotes4usmle:

ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)

Also, REMEMBER!!!!

* Sulfonamides compete for albumin with:

Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:

Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:

* Penicillins enhanced with:

Aminoglycosides enhanced with Aztreonam

* Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT Oxacillin & Nafcillin (bile)

* Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT Cefoperazone & Cefrtriaxone (bile)

* Both inhibited by Probenecid during tubular secretion.

* 2°G Cephalosporines: none cross BBB except Cefuroxime

* 3°G Cephalosporines: all cross BBB except Cefoperazone bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn’t cross BBB.

* Cephalosporines are ”LAME" bc they  do not cover this organisms 

image

* Disulfiram-like effect: Cefotetan Cefoperazone (mnemonic)

* Cefoperanzone: all the exceptions!!!

* Against Pseudomonas:

* Covers MRSA: Ceftaroline (rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5°G Ceph), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline.

Covers VRSA: Linezolid, Dalfopristin/Quinupristin

* Aminoglycosides: decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.

* DEMECLOCYCLINE: tetracycline that’s not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)

* Phototoxicity: Q ue S T  ion?

image

* p450 inhibitors: Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides

* Macrolides SE: Motilin stimulation, QT prolongation, reversible deafness, eosinophilia, cholestatic hepatitis

Bactericidal: beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.

* Baceriostatic: tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.

Pseudomembranous colitis: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.

QT prolongation: macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones

(Source: lifeisntseriouss)

[video]

Sep 28

funsciencenow:

Ebola virus

funsciencenow:

Ebola virus

post-mitotic:

stapes, the stirrup of our auditory system and one of the three middle ear bones responsible for transmitting sound to the oval window
colored SEM
credit: Steve Gschmeissner

post-mitotic:

stapes, the stirrup of our auditory system and one of the three middle ear bones responsible for transmitting sound to the oval window

colored SEM

credit: Steve Gschmeissner

imaginingscience:

neurons by iamckenzie on Flickr.

imaginingscience:

neurons by iamckenzie on Flickr.

(Source: medblrreblogs)

Sep 27

katenichiwa:

GIF for you! http://gifshop.tv/m/YU5M3XB9K7/ cut cut cut cut cut

katenichiwa:

GIF for you! http://gifshop.tv/m/YU5M3XB9K7/

cut cut cut cut cut

(Source: civilkill)