Here numerous HIV-1 particles leave a cultured HeLa cell. These viruses lack their vpu gene and thus can’t detach from the cell’s tethering factor, BST2. Each viron particle is ~120nm in diameter. The image was captured with a Zeiss Merlin ultra high-resolution scanning electron microscope. The cells were fixed, dehydrated, critical-point dried, and lightly sputter-coated with gold/palladium.
Path Bites from Pathology Student 19/08/14
Here’s a very quick and simple review of white blood cells.
- Neutrophils: fight bacteria, participate in inflammatory responses. 10 o’clock and 3 o’clock in the image above.
- Lymphocytes: participate in adaptive immune responses, fight viruses. 8 o’clock in the image above.
- Monocytes: phagocytic (turn into macrophages), participate in immune responses by displaying antigens. 8 o’clock above.
- Eosinophils: participate in allergic responses, fight parasites, increased in drug reactions. 2 o’clock above.
- Basophils: participate in allergic reactions, increased in cases of chronic myeloid leukemia. 4 o’clock above.
For more on normal white blood cells, see Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (“big Robbins”) 9th edition, page 580 (or 8e, page 590).
A wind turbine, a roaring crowd at a football game, a jet engine running full throttle: Each of these things produces sound waves that are well below the frequencies humans can hear. But just because you can’t hear the low-frequency components of these sounds doesn’t mean they have no effect on your ears. Listening to just 90 seconds of low-frequency sound can change the way your inner ear works for minutes after the noise ends, a new study shows.
“Low-frequency sound exposure has long been thought to be innocuous, and this study suggests that it’s not,” says audiology researcher Jeffery Lichtenhan of the Washington University School of Medicine in in St. Louis, who was not involved in the new work.
Cerebellum #histology #facebookforlearning #brains #zombiesbelikeyum
Today’s graphic looks at the 20 common amino acids that are combined to make up the proteins in our bodies. It also gives the three-letter and one-letter codes for each, as well as denoting whether they are ‘essential’ or ‘non-essential’.
Read more information & grab the PDF here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-tu
08 October 2014
The brain is often called our grey matter but it also contains white matter, a tissue once thought to be passive but now known to help transmit nerve impulses. To understand more about white matter, researchers scanned 24 regions of the brain in people aged 7 to 85. They found that white matter, like most tissues, matures then deteriorates with age – but this rate of change varies, for example occurring much more rapidly in regions of the brain dealing with learning than those dealing with movement. A map of the brain, pictured, was constructed from the study, with different colours representing how quickly white matter changes with age – red is fastest and blue slowest. This type of brain mapping may help doctors diagnose and treat a range of disorders associated with white matter abnormalities including schizophrenia, autism, learning disabilities and multiple sclerosis.
Written by Mick Warwicker
Cells in the mouse retina
- Purple: Cones.
- Orange: Horizontal cells.
- Green: Bipolar cells.
- Magenta: Amacrine + Ganglion cells.
There wasn’t a lot of pure chemistry, no. I did a module of it in first year but after that it was biochemistry or cell signalling pathways which were studied.
The subjects which were mostly there were haematology, blood transfusion, microbiology, virology, anatomy, physiology, cell pathology, biochemistry and statistics. There are probably a few more I’m forgetting, but that’s the general gist.
Congestive Heart Failure